Monday, March 8, 2010

10 Random Thoughts On Weight Training

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Just some random stuff I've either discussed or thought about in the last few days.

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1. The deadlift is poorly suited to a high training frequency. I've never derived any benefit from training the lift more than once per week; and even that is pushing it in terms of recovery if I'm squatting heavy within that same week. Generally speaking, I've had my best deadlift-sessions while training the lift no more than once every 8-12th day.

2. When increasing the weight for a movement, you need to pay attention to the percentage increase in load. This may seem like common sense, but people are prone to ignore it and only think of the increase in terms of poundage. Guys are sometimes stumped about why they lose a lot of reps when switching to a heavier set of dumbells. They go from 50 lbs x 8 for seated dumbbell presses to 55 lbs x 5-6 - a loss of 2-3 reps accompanied by a feeling of "Oh shit. This was a lot heavier than I imagined." Well, a mere 5-lb increase in load for dumbbells often represents a +10% increase in load unless you're fairly strong. Assuming strength is unchanged, you'll lose about 1 rep for every 2.5% increase in load. Thus a 10% increase may cause the loss of 4 reps if you didn't gain any strength since the last session. So when you're moving up to the next pair of dumbbells, consider the percentage increase in the load you'll be working with. Make sure to get at least 8 reps with your current dumbbell-pair before jumping to the next pair; this will give you some leeway with regards to potential loss of reps and hopefully be able to eek out at least 5 reps using the new weight.

3. Going all out on some compound movements, i.e RPT, warrants a day of rest before returning to the gym. Attempting a second session within 24 hrs after the first is more often than not a losing strategy. I always note a negative effect on my strength on the second session - even if the lift(s) trained on the preceding day(s) involved completely different muscle group(s). For example, squats to failure will affect pressing strength on the next day. This is likely due to effects on the central nervous system caused by failure-training (such as RPT or HIT).


A crumpled old "training log". Don't matter where or how you keep it, but you better make damn sure you have one. For as long as I can remember I've been using old post-it notes to keep track of my workouts.

4. The primary function of weight-training on a diet should be to preserve muscle mass and maintain strength. If this attitude is in place, it's possible to increase strength and muscle mass while losing fat depending on the training status of the client.

5. I am not a fan of "metabolic" workouts or glycogen-depletion as a means to fat loss. It's inferior to regular weight-training and not a time-efficient way to increase calorie expenditure. It also tends to increase the perceived challenge of the diet; lactate-inducing workouts can be gruesome. My goal is always to make the diet as painless and easy as possible. Painful workouts are never part of the plan.

6. During fat loss, no one needs to weight-train more than 3x/week. Muscle groups don't need higher frequency than 1x/week if intensity is high. Find more productive things to do with your time. Most people screw themselves over by being in the gym too much and too often. Less is more and this is especially true on a diet.

7. Studies suggest greater strength gains with longer rest periods. In a recent study, 5 minutes was superior to 1 and 3 mins. Too bad they didn't measure muscle gain. I wonder if longer rest periods would yield greater hypertrophy in the long run. I suspect it will.

8. Personality traits play a role in ultimately determining the right training routine. My experiment with high frequency training taught me a few things. One of those things is that I am hopelessly addicted to high intensity training and ill suited to be allowed in the gym for more than three sessions per week.

9. My experiment also taught me that high frequency training is quite effective when temperance is exercised. My template had me benching, chinning and squatting every fourth day with good success, but in only one of those sessions I was allowed to go anywhere near failure.

10. Generally speaking, people have no business contemplating specialization-routines for lagging body parts until they achieve two out of the following four goals: bench press 1.5 x body weight, chin-up 1.5 x body weight, squat 2 x body weight or deadlift 2.5 x body weight.

54 comments:

cubby said...

I find the same problem with attempting higher frequency routines. I really enjoy going all out on at least one or two sets per workout, so a high volume/frequency kills me. Doggcrapp worked nicely for me, but I found I perform best on more traditional, multi-set power routines. Currently, I am experimenting with RPT and post-tetanic facilitation, on an SPBR-influenced template.

Jon Fernandes said...

Awesome advice. Thanks Martin.

Eric Komans said...

Taking this as a sign to use my one workout between now and Wednesday as a strength day instead of a depletion day.

I'm all bloaty from overeating on carbs (and just... shit... in general) and I was debating between a depletion workout so I wouldn't have to look at Bloatman so much, or a strength workout just because I'm going to have a much easier time with the same numbers.

If I want to see less of Bloatman I shouldn't cave to binging! Bah~

Great post. Definitely a sort of 'I wanted it, but I didn't know to ask for it.' Really helped me focus and re-prioritize what I'm trying to achieve.

Anonymous said...

Hello:)

Thank you for an awesome post:) I am a returning reader and I find your writings essential for my daily check-out-list on the net.

Just for the sake of clarification:
With 1,5x chin-ups, do you mean that a person weighing 100 kg should have 50 or 150 kg attached to himself in weights doing chins? I assume the former, as long as we speak about the same excercise.
Correct me if I am wrong.


Regards
Daniel Rød

Anonymous said...

I have had some of my best strength gains following a high frequency routine. Really high frequency, deadlifting 5 times a week. Obviously intensity and volume had to be in check. This gets tricky as you get stronger, but even then I was deadlifting 3 times a week. Staying well a way from failure and only testing my 1 rep max every 6 weeks or so. Easy strength.

It helped that I worked 5 minutes away from the weight room in those days.

Sadly I haven't been deadlifting recently.

These days I do 2 strength sessions a week and 2 conditioning sessions. This gives me plenty of time for martial arts, which I am hopelessly addicted to.

Cheers,

Suleiman

PS have you read much about GIP?

Mark Young said...

Hey Martin,

Great stuff as always! Thanks for making me think.

Martin Berkhan said...

Cubby,

You and me both. Training to failure has a certain addictive quality to it. Overdose and you pay the price.

Jon and Eric,

Thanks.

Daniel,

The former (i.e 100 kg bw + 50 kg attached).

Suleiman,

It might be doable with the right intensity cycling, sure. But more often than not, deadlifting isn't suitable for high frequency training once you start pushing closer to failure. What's GIP?

Anonymous said...

Great post, Martin. You always have interesting things to share.

Anonymous said...

"1. The deadlift is poorly suited to a high training frequency. I've never derived any benefit from training the lift more than once per week; and even that is pushing it in terms of recovery if I'm squatting heavy within that same week. Generally speaking, I've had my best deadlift-sessions while training the no more than once every 8-12th day."

Conventional or sumo deadlifts from the floor, especially if you've been training smartly and seriously for several years or more definitely take a ton out of you. And if you plan on doing anything more than maintaining the squat or doing some less demanding squat work (as you noted when mentioning heavy squats) during the same training week or block, then this advice is definitely spot on. Even if you had a reason to try doing so, a high frequency approach to deadlifts couldn't/shouldn't be used for an extended period of time anyway, so this advice still applies across the board.

"5. I am not a fan of "metabolic" workouts or glycogen-depletion as a means to fat loss. It's inferior to regular weight-training and not a time-efficient way to increase calorie expenditure. It also tends to increase the perceived challenge of the diet; lactate-inducing workouts can be gruesome. My goal is always to make the diet as painless and easy as possible. Painful workouts are never part of the plan."

I suppose this memo never got to Alwyn Cosgrove, as he is always chatting up his metabolic workouts and all of the "real-world" research going on at his facility. Every other day it seems like he is attributing greater and greater caloric expenditures and results to such training sessions.

"6. During fat loss, no one needs to weight-train more than 3x/week. Muscle groups don't need higher frequency than 1x/week if intensity is high. Find more productive things to do with your time. Most people screw themselves over by being in the gym too much and too often. Less is more and this is especially true on a diet."

Excellent point!

"7. Studies suggest greater strength gains with longer rest periods. In a recent study, 5 minutes was superior to 1 and 3 mins. Too bad they didn't measure muscle gain. I wonder if longer rest periods would yield greater hypertrophy in the long run. I suspect it will."

While I find rest periods between sets to be a highly individual thing, my general rule is to rest as little as needed between sets without significantly compromising performance. It's definitely important for people to not simply rush through sets for the sake of sticking to any artificial/external parameters they've set for that training session. This is an instance where antagonist pairings or non-competing pairings (when possible, since it may not always lend itself well to deadlifting and squatting, and since application in commercial gyms during peak hours may get tricky for some combinations) seem to help, since they increase the time between sets of the same exercise without being all that noticeable to a trainee who tends to "rush" through his workouts.

8. Personality traits play a role in ultimately determining the right training routine. My experiment with high frequency training taught me a few things. One of those things is that I am hopelessly addicted to high intensity training and ill suited to be allowed in the gym for more than three sessions per week.

This is an excellent and highly under-appreciated point that many fail to recognize. Too many so-called experts try to force square pegs into round holes time and again.

At the end of the day, results are king, and nobody can argue with your results, Martin. Your results speak loudly and clearly. Thanks for sharing these thoughts.

~Luke Schneider

Migue said...

At least for me, im trying a recomposition fat loss type of IF
1 Day Workout upperbody-Eat+0/20%DIET
2 Day Cardio -50%DIET
3 Day Workout LowerBody-Eat+0/20%DIET
4 Day Cardio -50%DIET
Repeat always so i never train the same days in the week because some week ill train MON-WED-FRI-SUN
And other TUES-THUR-SAT,
Leaving only one day of high caloric exp, and low caloric exp, not like the tipical MON-WED-FRI and then resting Saturday and Sunday.
Im doing this because its only one day to eat a lot so its not a torture at all and its a good way to carb up and down.
PD: Sorry for the bad english :p

John said...

good stuff!...but your dark blog is really hard to read...bet you've lost a few followers because of it. Thanks!

Anonymous said...

Martin,

I'm with you 100% on the RPT-style training. To me it only makes sense to move the heaviest load when you're the least fatigued. To me it's ass-backwards to attempt progressively heavier loads (on work sets) as fatigue progressively accumulates.

Keep up the great work,

-Alan Aragon

Yew Wei said...

Great stuff as always. BTW, do you have strength standards for other lifts, since many people can't/don't do the lifts you mentioned? Thanks.

Anonymous said...

im the same way, i can never hold back in the gym...thats why i stick with a ABA approach: 3 workouts per week and hit every bodypart once every 5th day. it's a compromise..i wanna be able to train bodyparts more often than once a week (which doesnt work at all for me) but at the same time i can't productively hit everything twice a week, its just too much.

the other option i need to look into is specialization training: focusing on 1-2 bodyparts and hit them twice a week and maintain everything else with low volume training once a week.

Martin Berkhan said...

Luke,

'I suppose this memo never got to Alwyn Cosgrove, as he is always chatting up his metabolic workouts and all of the "real-world" research going on at his facility. Every other day it seems like he is attributing greater and greater caloric expenditures and results to such training sessions.'

Hah yeah, except studies shows EPOC to be fairly ínsignificant. I did a theoretical calculation on the EPOC in of the Q&As on this site and the "afterburn" was less than 10 kcal (search on "epoc").

'While I find rest periods between sets to be a highly individual thing, my general rule is to rest as little as needed between sets without significantly compromising performance. '

Yeah, there's a practical side to consider. Especially if you train in a commercial gym where occupying the rack for 20-25 mins might not be much appreciated by the staff or other members. For me personally, 3 min rest is adequate for most movements.

'At the end of the day, results are king, and nobody can argue with your results, Martin. Your results speak loudly and clearly. Thanks for sharing these thoughts.'

Thanks, Luke.

Martin Berkhan said...

Alan,

'I'm with you 100% on the RPT-style training. To me it only makes sense to move the heaviest load when you're the least fatigued.'

Exactly. It always seemed counterintuitive to me to structure sets in a traditional pyramid fashion like most bodybuilders/bros do. When you get to the heavy weights you're already fatigued from all the la-la-shit you did before.

Martin Berkhan said...

Yew,

'Great stuff as always. BTW, do you have strength standards for other lifts, since many people can't/don't do the lifts you mentioned?'

Here's a few off the top of my head -

Overhead Press: body weight

Front Squat: 1.6 x body weight

Pendlay Row: 1.4 x body weight

David Shores DC said...

Martin,

Great post. Common sense basic info!

Reguarding infrequent deadlifts. I have found something similar. I set PR's this year of a 455 squat and 485 deadlift (42yrs) while performing them once every three weeks. I was stuck in the low 300's on both lifts until I reduced frequency.

Personally I never had much luck dialing the intensity back.

Anonymous said...

My problem whit RPT is that after the first exercicie done that way, the next suffer, for example, If I do 1x 5 + 1x 15 on chins, after If I do OverheadPresses, my performance will be less If I did 2x 5 on chis, right?
Nice Blog!!

Martin Berkhan said...

Yup. Go all out on chins and overhead press will suffer if that's your next movement. Try longer rest periods. In between movements like deads and chins or bench and overhead press I rest at least 5 mins.

Wilmar said...

i can't even imagine body weight overhead presses... i barely hit 50% body weight last month. such a beginner. gahhhh need to train!

Rob said...

This article has just reminded me, when do you plan to release making high frequency work part 2?

Jimbo said...

Hi Martin,

Quick question re: RPT - Does this include warm up sets? I'm assuming not, but on the other hand, I can see how performing 2 sets of 10 reps of, say 25% and 50% weight might introduce fatigue.

PS - I started your IF suggestions just over a week ago and am having a positive experience so far. The first week I pigged out on All-You-Eat Sushi on two nights and still noticed a 1cm loss on my waist but weight stayed the same. Strength went up every-so-slightly and I feel I can push through a couple of plateaus even though I'm on a caloric deficit right now. (I am a new lifter, so strength gains are still in the 'noob gains' territory I expect - squats are 1.4x bodyweight for 5 reps, bench is about 1.2x bodyweight for 5 reps and dead is nearing 2x bodyweight for 5 reps).

Martin Berkhan said...

Rob,

Don't know. Maybe I won't. The template relies a lot on autoregulation and I'm hesistant to put it out there. This is what I wrote on Lyle's forum when discussing the issue.

Me -

"...Lyle has a point in that in-person/online personal training is different than doing an article on the subject. That's why I'm hesistant in posting part 2 of this article/my high frequency experiment which also relied a lot on auto-regulation. People would find a way to screw it up."

Lyle -

" I always have a point. Sometimes it's even a good one. But the point is this: what you can do with in-person or even constant feedback is completely different than when you write a book or article and let people go. What I do with people in the gym is not something I can write or explain in an article becuase I can't give teh 15 years of experience in that format (e.g. the ruleset I use). So you simplify when you write, based on the correct assumption that whatever dumb mistake someone can make...they will make it."

Martin Berkhan said...

Jimbo,

No, warm-ups are not included. If you get fatigued during your warm-up sets, you're doing it wrong. 1-2 sets of 4-5 reps at 60-80% of your top work-set is a decent guideline (i.e if you're going for 100 x 6-8 in your top set don't go heavier than 80 x 4-5 for warm-up).

AW said...

Martin,

I'm confused about something. Should the preworkout meal be the one that breaks the fast, or does it not really matter?

Related question, is there a best time for workout during the 8 hour feeding window?

Thank you

Martin Berkhan said...

There are different ways to go about it depending on when you prefer or are able to train.

You could train fasted and break the fast with your post-workout meal - or train later in the day/evening and have one or two smaller meals before your session (and one big meal post-workout).

Anonymous said...

"4. The primary function of weight-training on a diet should be to preserve muscle mass and maintain strength. If this attitude is in place, it's possible to increase strength and muscle mass while losing fat depending on the training status of the client."

I have a few thoughts/questions that touch upon the above topic.

When attempting to cut down i always strive to have a caloric surplus on my workout days (i train twice a week) while the rest of the days i'm on a defict. I'm under the impression, that even though i'm losing weight during a week (0,5 kg), i also get a VERY SLIGHT increase in muscle mass. Is this a correct assumption from my side? What i really want to ask you is this:

When attempting to cut down. Is it stupid to be on a surplus on the weight training days? Will the increase in mass be so small that it would likely be better to be in defict during the whole week.

/Göran

Martin Berkhan said...

'Is this a correct assumption from my side?'

Can't say, but considering what you wrote below I'd say it's a fair assumption.

'When attempting to cut down. Is it stupid to be on a surplus on the weight training days? '

No.

Felix said...

great post and awesome blog!

TheGymMonkey said...

Great post. Thanks.

Anonymous said...

Hey Martin!

About:

"Studies suggest greater strength gains with longer rest periods. In a recent study, 5 minutes was superior to 1 and 3 mins."

Has this anything to do with the recreation of ATP and creatine phosphate which enables full recreation after 5 minutes of total rest?

// Conundrum

Martin Berkhan said...

Yes, definitely.

Anonymous said...

Martin,
I have a few miscellaneous questions.

1) Dietary calcium's effect (not supplemental/elemental calcium) on increased fecal excretion of energy was actually measured here at university by one of my TAs, who was part of a research group. He hinted at the strong possibility of a confounder: the wide-ranging issue with lactose intolerance, which is estimated to impact 75% of the entire world population to some degree, whether those people know it or not. Given this, the decreased available energy content of food consumed proximal to calcium intake may merely be due to mild lactose intolerance-induced nutrient malabsorption. Not necessarily a bad thing as long as one's micronutrient bases are covered elsewhere in the day, but what I am suggesting is that perhaps there is another mechanism (namely, mild nutrient malabsorption) aside from calcium alone that is beneficial to the dieter?

2) In the same vein, fiber, aside from its effects on satiety, has been shown to reduce the metabolizable energy content of food eaten with it. This is why doctors typically recommend that vitamins not be taken with fiber because fiber cakes up, binds pills, and pulls them through the entire length of the GI tract to the rectum, decreasing the pills' chances of being fully absorbed through the small intestine - decreased bioavailability. Effectively, gut transit time for any bolus of food taken with fiber is decreased (which was why fiber intake is recommended in lowering risk for diverticulosis/diverticulitis).

As a strategy for anticipating a social event/splurge, do you think it would be a good idea for me to take in fiber before the meal to ensure not all of the calories eaten during the feast are absorbed? Right now, I have about 30-45g of Fiber One cereal (~15-20g of fiber) about 10-15 minutes before a big meal. What do you think? Just need an affirmation/rejection of my logic.

3) I understand that in IF, the fast actually slightly elevates RMR, which is mediated by catecholamine release. I also subscribe to your assertion that stimulants can magnify this catecholamine release and perpetuate the increased energy expenditure.

However, on days where I'm in a pinch, I tend to have a single meal in the evening that contains the entirety of that day's allotted calories (and that meets my protein needs). It may sound similar to the Warrior Diet (one big meal in the evening, unless I read the protocol wrong). I don't deliberately try to do this, but when I do, I certainly don't have any cravings during the extended fast (usually going up to 18-20 hours). I was wondering if maintaining the fast that much longer would be beneficial anyway since RMR would continue to be elevated. Couldn't hurt, right? Of course, this would be on non-training days.

Thanks in advance.

Anonymous said...

"calcium increases fat excretion" Perhaps you recommend an intake of calcium pyruvate then?

Martin Berkhan said...

Anon,

'He hinted at the strong possibility of a confounder: the wide-ranging issue with lactose intolerance,..'

'..perhaps there is another mechanism (namely, mild nutrient malabsorption) aside from calcium alone that is beneficial to the dieter?..'

Interesting re: lactose intolerance, but the official theory so far is that calcium "binds" dietary fatty acids which are then excreted in fecal matter.

'As a strategy for anticipating a social event/splurge, do you think it would be a good idea for me to take in fiber before the meal to ensure not all of the calories eaten during the feast are absorbed?'

It could be, but just how effective such a strategy would be in practical terms is hard to say.

'I was wondering if maintaining the fast that much longer would be beneficial anyway since RMR would continue to be elevated. Couldn't hurt, right? Of course, this would be on non-training days.'

Sure, but benefits of a longer fast should be weighted against the cons, such as potentially compromised long-term compliance and diet composition (i.e with one meal a day, you're likely to eat more fat and carbs to meet your caloric target for the day). The effect on RMR shouldn't be exaggerated either. We're talking +3-5% RMR for a few hours.

Martin Berkhan said...

'"calcium increases fat excretion" Perhaps you recommend an intake of calcium pyruvate then?'

No, I don't.

Matt said...

Good stuff here Martin.

Regarding percentage gains when increasing weights, that's one reason I've been gravitating more towards "widening the base of the pyramid", versus trying to focus around load fluctuations.

Adding weight is an obvious way to demonstrate strength gains, and so is adding reps to each set. But you can also build strength by increasing the tonnage up to a point, as with ladders or any of the density-training methods; basically anything that has you doing a lot of short/sub-max sets with a reasonably heavy weight.

That's become my preferred method these days, as too much time with the heavy stuff just seems to get me hurt.

It also ties in nicely with the AREG stuff as well, being much more flexible in terms of controlling volume and even the working weights in each session.

Oh and you're spot on about the DL too. Less is better with that monster. Focusing less on heavy deadlifts (speed stuff, in line with what I wrote above, doesn't seem to be so bad) and more on GMs, back raises, GHRs, and sloppy upper-back work like Kroc rows seems to be the key once you get up to that point of diminishing returns.

Nik said...

Martin, as just a total beginner your site is a little advanced for me. That being said - I have read many things here on your blog that I can use as my knowledge grows bigger.

Anyway as just starting out I'm planning to go by "Starting Strength" as I've also seen you recommend here for beginners.

My question is - is there ANY advice you would give on top on just going by Starting Strength? Your knowledge is pretty amazing - so any tips to shove a beginner in the right direction would be much appreciated.

I'm currently on a low carb diet (Mark Sisson -style)
hight: 185
weight:80
I take Omega 3 + D + Calcium + Creatin
No plans for IF until further


NB: Could you see yourself reviewing Primal Blueprint? I see you as far more specialized than Mark Sisson and him being more digestable for a broader audience - but I still think he has some nice ideas. In that context I would find your view on these very interesing..

Martin Berkhan said...

Nik,

Beginner advice: Don't think you can improve a pre-made template like SS. Don't get any funny ideas. You'll just screw it up. Do the plan exactly as it's laid out. There's a million other things I could tell you but that's what came to mind.

Might review PB some day. But it's not on top of my agenda right now.

Nik said...

Thanks Martin, I appreciate it..

If I do change something about SS it will be for the better - joking ;-)

Michael said...

Why is the chin-up the exercise of your choice? Why not the pull-up with a lesser amount of weight added?

Martin Berkhan said...

Superior ROM.

Michael said...

Wow! I didn't expect an answer this quickly. Thanks :) . My second thought is about the widespread belief that a chin-up at a greater extent targets the biceps versus the pull-up that targets the lats more. Is there a truth in that? Or does both exercises train the lats equally?

Martin Berkhan said...

That's true, but considering the shitty form and limited ROM I see people using with pullups I think chins is the preferable option. Total muscle area involved is greater with chins, which is why I recommend that as the first hand choice unless we're talking lat specialization-routines. But you can do both of course.

Anonymous said...

I know this is an older post but I am slowly making my way through your site...great information here - thank you!

I was just curious if the goals you mention (i.e. bench press 1.5xBW) apply to women or would there be other standards?

Thank you!

Martin Berkhan said...

I think I've mentioned standards for women somewhere else on the site.

They went something along these lines:

Bench Press: 0.9 x BW
Squat: 1.4 x BW
Deadlift: 1.7 x BW
Chins: 3 dead-hang chin-ups

Anonymous said...

Thank you so much!

Anonymous said...

Martin,

Regarding your point about not needing to train more than 3x/week on a diet, and not needing a frequency/body part of more than 1x/week...

1) Do you have any volume guidelines per body part if they were to be trained in a RPT format for the most part?

2) If training each body part 1x/week, through 3 sessions/week, do you have a preferred body part split? i.e. Push/Pull/Legs, something else?

Thanks :)

Martin Berkhan said...

1. Nope. I don't think in terms of sets per body part/muscle group.

2. Something along these lines

Mon - Deads + chins

Wed - Bench + tris

Fri - Squats + assistance (abs/calves)

Anonymous said...

Martin,

I have been researching your Lean Gains approach for a while now. I would really like to incorporate your training style in my workouts. Based on your posts am I correct that the individual would only perform 6 total sets on a workout day (For example 3 sets of deadlifts and 3 sets of weighted chins)? Thanks.

Anonymous said...

Martin,

For those of us not into squats what else could you suggest as an alternative to that in addition to abs on the 3rd weekly workout?

Cheers!

Anonymous said...

Just out of curiosity, any particular reason you favor bench press to weighted dips, in spite of the former being open kinetic chain and the latter being closed kinetic chain?

What would 1.5 x bw bench translate to for weighted dips?

James said...

I've only started lifting weights over the last 3 months, and don't have any planned training routine.

I tend to work out 4 days a week and just to do a combination of Lat pulldowns(15reps), lat pulldown underhand grip(15 reps) chest press(15 reps), soldier press(15reps), bicep curl(15reps), standing row(15reps), shrugs(15 reps) and tricep pushdown(15 reps) and just repeat the above for 45 mins - 1 hr. Will this workout lead to any muscle gain in the longrun? Any tips?




My name is Martin Berkhan and I work as a nutritional consultant, magazine writer and personal trainer.

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